Saturday, June 16, 2012

Dreamers in the Stream of Conciousness

Onward! 4LAKids
4LAKids: Sunday 17•June•2012
In This Issue:
 •  HIGHLIGHTS, LOWLIGHTS & THE NEWS THAT DOESN'T FIT: The Rest (but not necessarily the best) of the Stories from Other Sources
 •  EVENTS: Coming up next week...
 •  What can YOU do?

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Columbus came to America without knowing it. There’s a lesson there – but let’s not make too much of it. It won't be on the test.

Maybe six or seven years ago, when my daughter was a student at Marshall High School, a student she knew was deported back to a country he was from but really didn’t know. As I recall it was Sri Lanka. His family had – in the language of Homeland Security – “overstayed their visa”. He was a month or two from graduation; he had been accepted to college. John Donne, meet Eugene O’Neill: “Ask not for whom the I.C.E. man cometh, he comes for thee.” Nobody was any safer from terror or unemployment or any other menace, foreign or domestic, with the kid deported. Injustice was done and nothing was served. It wasn’t fair.

On Friday President Obama tried to do something about some of this. Tea Party Patriots screamed bloody murder: “No fair! We are a nation of laws!” they howled.

“I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness…”

We are a nation of immigrants. Men and women, boys and girls. Willing and witless. WASPs and tea partiers and Minutemen in camo and Guardian Angels in red berets. Crossers of the ice shelf, conquistadors and pabladores, passengers on the Mayflower, on the slavers and the immigrant packets; boatlifters from Mariel, arrivers at Ellis Island and Angel Island and JFK and LAX; waders of the Rio Grande and the Tijuana Rivers. We are all Dreamers: tired and poor, huddled masses and wretched refuse and wretched excess. We are the documented and undocumented and those who doubt the documents of others. The Beastie Boys say we have to fight for our right to party. Perhaps the tea partiers take that right and that fight a little too closely to heart.

ON TUESDAY Judge Chafont issued his ruling on the Doe v. Deasy/Stull Evaluation lawsuit;

Attorney Jonathan J. Mott of Parker & Covert LLP provided the following for the AALA (principals’ union) Update:

“On June 12, 2012, a hearing was held in Los Angeles Superior Court on the Doe v. Deasy case concerning certificated evaluation, which has been pending since November 2011. To recap, unnamed students and parents sued LAUSD, Dr. Deasy and the Board members to have the court set aside the portions of the collective bargaining agreements regarding evaluation and impose new requirements for Stull Act evaluations without bargaining. AALA was granted the right to appear in the case as an interested party.

“Judge James Chalfant ruled that the District’s current certificated evaluations do not comply with Stull in the area of including pupil progress toward state and District standards as a factor in the evaluations. Judge Chalfant refused to set aside the collective bargaining agreements or order any specific methods to comply with Stull requirements for the evaluation process as demanded by the petitioners. He stated that implementation of changes is a matter within the District’s discretion and is therefore subject to bargaining. The Judge also rejected efforts by LAUSD’s lawyer to make the implementation of evaluation changes, utilizing academic growth over time (AGT) or other methods, a nonnegotiable item. AALA has offered for several months to bargain on the evaluation process, with no response from LAUSD. Now that the judge has ruled, we will continue our efforts to bargain over any changes to the evaluation process. The next hearing in court is set for July 24 to finalize the Judge’s order and set a date for LAUSD to explain what it will do to comply.” |

ALSO TUESDAY the Board of Ed voted for and Saturday UTLA announced the approval vote for as unreal/unfair/unbelievable a budget/operating plan/governance document for LAUSD as can be imagined. Teachers will work for free for as many as ten days. The instructional year will be reduced by as many as five days. Jobs will be saved – but not as many as you think. As tentative agreements go, be tentative …be very tentative. And you can safely strike the first two previous references to “as-many-as”.

ON FRIDAY the state legislature generated a similar work of magical realism pretending to be a budget.

The LAUSD one is a worst case scenario – with implied-but-unpromised promises to do better if the voters vote for the Governor’s Initiative. The state budget is all hopeful and best viewed with its own set of rose-colored glasses – similar to the Mormon seer-stones Urim and Thummim – reliant upon what other only hopes for. And no matter what, reality is sure to intervene. And everybody would like to keep their promises …alas, if only they could.

SATURDAY WAS BLOOMSDAY – James Joyce and Ulysses adrift on the stream of consciousness – as obscure and real/unreal as a holiday gets. On Saturday Aung San Suu Kyi gave her Nobel Lecture. As a cynic and a dreamer and the father of a young woman I cannot help but find Hope here: Sunday is the 40th anniversary of the Watergate part of Watergate; a light shone into a darkness that casts a shadow beyond today.

It is the season of graduation speeches – where old folks speak and young folks listen to the wisdom and folly of age+experience – and celebrate thirteen years of accomplishment and achievement and attendance with ten minutes of pith and cliché. Wear sunscreen. The kids and the superintendent in medieval attire+headgear tweet from the folding chairs and all is forgotten in due time.

As a middle-class middle-aged Anglo male I cannot help but note the brouhaha around David McCullough, Jr’s “You Are Not Special” speech to the class of 2012 at Wellesley High School in Massachusetts. Follow McCullough’s advice and read on: Read, read, read. I suggest starting with “Why Elites Fail” by Christopher Hayes from the current edition of The Nation. . But why listen to me?

AND IF YOU ARE TRYING TO MAKE ANY SENSE AT ALL OF THE ABOVE I direct you to Slate Supreme Court reporter Dahlia Lithwick’s Muppet Theory of the battle between chaos and order:

Doot doo, doo doo doo doo. Menominah. Doot doo doo doo.

¡Onward/Adelante! - smf


from e-mails and UTLA.Net |

June 16, 2012 5:28 PM :: UTLA members voted to approve the tentative agreement reached this month with LAUSD, with 58% of the members voting yes on the agreement and 42% voting no.

UTLA President Warren Fletcher issued the following statement in the wake of the vote:

Thank you to everyone who cast a ballot—either for or against the tentative agreement—and for taking part in making this difficult decision. The vote has saved thousands of jobs and stopped the dismantling of vital programs and services.

The superintendent and the LAUSD School Board came within an inch of boosting elementary class size by 25 percent and laying off thousands of teachers. They came within an inch of completely eliminating Adult Education, SRLDP, and Early Childhood Education from Los Angeles. They came within an inch of decimating arts education, physical education, nursing services, libraries, counseling services, and more in LAUSD.

Our members have once again taken on the burden of saving this District from itself, but it is clear from this close vote that our capacity to bear that burden year after year is at an end. UTLA members have begun to worry—justifiably—that by sacrificing and putting the needs of our students first, we are enabling LAUSD to continue its destructive pattern of adopting wildly destructive and irresponsible budgets.

The agreement that was just ratified includes a mechanism for using funds from the Governor’s education funding initiative to remove some or all of the potential furlough days for 2012-13. This would mean a full instructional year for both students and teachers for the first time since 2008.

Today UTLA, all 36,000-plus teachers and health and human services professionals, will begin the fight to make sure those funds are secured and that the School Board and the superintendent use those moneys to restore a full instructional year for every student and a full work year for every educator.


YES 14,195 58%

NO 10,206 42%



Reuters: Reporting by Jim Christie; Editing by David Brunnstrom |

SAN FRANCISCO | Fri Jun 15, 2012 6:33pm EDT :: (Reuters) - California's legislature on Friday approved the main bill in a state budget plan advanced by its Democratic leaders to close a $15.7 billion shortfall despite opposition from Democratic Governor Jerry Brown.

The votes by the Assembly and state Senate on the $92 billion budget plan followed vows by Democratic leaders of the bodies that they would meet the legislature's midnight deadline for a budget plan.

The bill now goes to Brown, who is at odds with top Democratic lawmakers over spending cuts aimed at programs providing services to the state's neediest.

Democratic leaders say Brown's proposed cuts are too severe and they intend to press on with talks with the governor on these and other matters in order to reach a budget agreement he can sign before the start of the state's next fiscal year on July 1.

The two sides are in agreement on many other moves to balance the state's books, including asking voters in November to approve a ballot measure to raise revenue by increasing the state's sales tax and income tax rates on wealthy taxpayers.

"We're not talking about radical differences in priorities," said Jack Pitney, a professor of government at Claremont McKenna College.

Pitney said the two sides are engaging in political theater - Democratic lawmakers demonstrating concern for a key political constituency and Brown aiming to show the broad electorate he is willing to make draconian spending cuts to win their backing for tax increases.

"Each side has an incentive to make a strong public statement, but in private there is a great deal of opportunity for splitting the difference," Pitney said.


Meanwhile, "Republicans are just spectators," Pitney said.

Republicans in the Assembly and Senate voted against the budget bill as they had said they would. They oppose its proposed tax increases and have complained that they were not included in budget talks in recent weeks. They also charge that the bill is full of accounting gimmicks.

Brown last year vetoed a spending approved by Democrats, saying it was not a truly balanced budget. The two sides resolved their differences, allowing Brown to sign the state budget before the start of the current fiscal year.

California's governor is technically required to sign a plan balancing the budget before start of the new fiscal year, but the state has a long history of its leaders engaging in protracted battles and missing deadlines for spending plans.

To remedy that, California voters in 2010 endorsed a ballot measure allowing the legislature to approve budgets that do not include tax increases by a simple majority vote - compared with a previous two-thirds vote requirement.

This effectively empowers Democrats to advance spending plans to the governor's desk on their own.

The ballot measure also provided for suspending lawmakers' pay if they do not approve a budget by their June 15 deadline.

Brown's office was not immediately available to comment on the votes by the Assembly and Senate, which, Pitney said, would allow lawmakers to continue to receive their paychecks.

Credit rating analysts have said they will take a close look at California's budget, which, when signed, will allow the state to sell short-term debt in the form of revenue anticipation notes to raise proceeds for its short-term cash needs.

Having a budget in place will also allow California to sell its general obligation bonds, which are popular with municipal debt investors despite the state's low credit rating.

Standard & Poor's has said its A-minus rating and positive outlook for the state could change if the legislature approves a budget filled with gimmicks.

Moody's Investors Service has said its A1 rating, with a stable outlook, could be lowered depending on how state leaders plug the budget shortfall.

(Reporting by Jim Christie; Editing by David Brunnstrom)


CALIFORNIA'S BUDGET IS FULL OF GIMMICKS …including delaying payments to schools

By DAN WALTERS, Sacramento Bee |

6-15-12 – SACRAMENTO :: The California Legislature's Democratic leaders insist that their new state budget is balanced, honest and contains an adequate reserve.

"Our budget contains no additional borrowing or so-called gimmicks," Senate President Pro Tem Darrell Steinberg said as details were unveiled.


It's "balanced" only with some very shaky income and outgo assumptions, it's "honest" only if one ignores dozens of bookkeeping tricks, fund shifts and other gimmicks, and its reserve is half of what Gov. Jerry Brown wants and a fraction of what it should be.

It is, in brief, a budget much like all recent budgets -- quite likely to fall apart when its suppositions meet reality.

The biggest of the shaky assumptions, of course, is about $8 billion in new sales and income taxes that require voter approval in November. Polls indicate that passage is no better than a 50-50 bet, and even if they do pass, they are likely to generate something less than the amount plugged into the budget.

Another assumption is that the deficit to be closed is what Brown says, $15.7 billion. Legislative analyst Mac Taylor has been telling his bosses in the Legislature that the gap between revenue and spending is probably $2 billion more but they chose the lower administration figure because it would be easier to cover.

Even without the increase in income and sales tax rates, the budget's underlying revenue assumptions are questionable. It assumes, for instance, that the state will get about $2 billion from Facebook's big stock offering, but the process was bollixed and the stock has been falling, not gaining in value.

The budget assumes that when the Air Resources Board auctions off cap-and-trade credits for carbon emissions next fall, it will generate a billion dollars and the state could use half of it for the general fund budget. But no one really knows how that auction will turn out, and using the proceeds, whatever they may be, for the general fund budget is of dubious legality.

By the same token, the budget would grab about $400 million from the national mortgage banking lawsuit settlement, even though it's supposed to be used to relieve pressure on homeowners.

Also very questionable are the local redevelopment agency funds that the state is seizing after abolishing the program. Taylor, among others, questions whether it will generate anything close to what the budget assumes, but the Legislature's budget uses an even higher number than the administration's $1.4 billion.

And then there are the gimmicks, such as raiding transportation money and other special funds (i.e., child abuse prevention money from special license plates) and delaying payments on loans and to schools and other agencies dependent on Sacramento.

An honest, gimmick-free budget? Hardly



June 14, 2012, 8:27 p.m. ET :: Los Angeles teacher April Bain says she backs using tests to evaluate teachers, something her union opposes.

In the past three years, at least 30 states have begun to use student achievement to evaluate teachers, spurred in part by President Barack Obama's Race to the Top education initiative as well as by some Republican governors. California isn't one of them.

That could change after a ruling by a Los Angeles County Superior Court judge. At a hearing Tuesday, Judge James Chalfant said the Los Angeles Unified School District, one of the nation's largest, violated California's Stull Act, a 41-year-old law that requires teacher evaluations to take into consideration the performance of students.

The current evaluation system in Los Angeles focuses on teaching methods, such as how a teacher demonstrates knowledge or guides instruction, according to the district.

In his ruling, Judge Chalfant contrasted the high rate of positive teacher evaluations in the district—97.6 in the 2009-10 school year—with low student proficiency in English and math.

"These failures cannot be laid solely at the feet of the District's teachers," the judge wrote. "But the District has an obligation to look at any and all means available to help improve the dismal results of its student population."

The ruling is a victory for the anonymous group of parents and students who last fall sued the LAUSD for the changes. It also is a win for the district's superintendent, John Deasy, who has been pushing the teachers' union to accept a new evaluation system that includes student performance on standardized tests. "In many ways, we were tremendously affirmed by the judge's decision," Mr. Deasy said.

The union generally opposes using standardized tests for teacher evaluation, especially if the results could be used to fire teachers.

Some Los Angeles teachers welcomed the ruling. April Bain, a math teacher at Downtown Magnets High School, said she was "flabbergasted" the district rates teachers without considering student achievement and hopes the decision will force it to add student test data to evaluations.

"I think it will make me a better teacher because it will make the evaluations more meaningful, and put more teeth behind them," Ms. Bain said.

An advocacy group called EdVoice, which gets support from Los Angeles billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad, backed the students and parents who sued the district.

The fight in Los Angeles is a microcosm of a national debate over using student tests to evaluate teachers. Research has shown that the quality of the teacher is one of the main drivers of student achievement.

As U.S. public-school pupils have fallen further behind peers around the globe, states and districts have begun using test scores to evaluate teachers and grant them tenure.

The judge's ruling is believed to be the first to order a California district to follow the parts of the Stull Act that call for teacher evaluations based on student achievement. It is likely to reverberate throughout the state.

"What happens in Los Angeles sets the stage for what happens in other districts," said Arun Ramanathan, executive director of Education Trust-West, a nonprofit that advocates for low-income and minority children.

Critics of the move say state-developed exams aren't nuanced enough to judge teacher quality. States struggle to find ways to grade teachers in untested subjects such as art and music. Some parents complain the movement has led to more tests for children, which take up valuable instruction time.

Judge Chalfant is expected to sign the judgment and final order, which the petitioners are drafting, at a hearing in late July. Bill Lucia, chief executive of EdVoice, said his group will push the district to show it is in the process of full compliance by Sept. 1 and that, by the end of the 2012-13 school year, all teacher evaluations include student-achievement data.

The judge's decision allows for a range of methods for evaluating teachers tied to student performance, including grade-point averages and pass-fail rates.

Mr. Deasy said he hopes the decision will compel the district to accelerate adoption of a new evaluation system it has been trying out among several hundred teachers and administrators this year. United Teachers Los Angeles, the local teachers' union, opposed that program, saying the student-performance measures it uses—standardized test scores over time—were unreliable.

"As educators we don't want to introduce something into the process that's going to have the outcome of narrowing the curriculum and really degrading the value of an education," said Warren Fletcher, the union's president.

Mr. Fletcher said that in light of Tuesday's ruling, the union will address evaluations as part of the collective-bargaining process, "in a way that doesn't skip the bargaining step and requires that the resolution be arrived at mutually by management and the teachers."

A lawyer for the petitioners said the district has to comply with the Stull Act. "You may have to bargain with the union about how you come into compliance, but that doesn't mean you can get around the minimum the law requires," said Scott J. Witlin of Barnes & Thornburg LLP.

—Alexandra Berzon contributed to this article.

-- A version of this article appeared June 15, 2012, on page A6 in the U.S. edition of The Wall Street Journal, with the headline: L.A. Teachers Face New Evaluations.


By Diane Ravitch, Ed Week |

June 12, 2012 :: Hundreds of millions of dollars in federal and state funds are now being spent to build so-called data warehouses to track students from their earliest years through postsecondary education. Standardized test scores are a key feature of the tracking systems, especially when they are attributed to individual teachers. In time, enthusiasts of the data-is-great school of thought believe we will have the information we need to identify "effective" teachers and make sure that there is an effective teacher in every classroom. With the data comes a tight focus on targets: higher test scores and higher graduation rates.

As the pressure to reach the targets get tougher, many districts are devising ways to raise their graduation rates that have nothing to do with thinking and learning. A prime suspect is credit recovery. I became suspicious when I first learned about credit recovery several years ago. That is when I discovered that some high schools were allowing students who had failed a course to obtain full credit by submitting an essay or a project that was written without any oversight or attending a workshop for several days.

It turns out that the academic fraud goes even deeper than I suspected.

I received a series of emails from someone who works for a major national organization and who reviews the validity of course credits. This person was disturbed by what she learned. She sent me screen shots of course content and assessments that online programs now use to award high school credit. I do not know this individual, but our email exchange persuaded me that she is legitimate, and the information is genuine.

The screen shots showed material used by two kinds of corporations: Some material comes from online credit-recovery courses sold to traditional public schools to help them raise their graduation rates. Other material comes from courses offered by a major for-profit organization that owns online charter schools.

Now, there may be some online courses that are genuinely beneficial. I grant that.

But what I saw, and what I understand has now become common practice, is academic fraud. I saw course credit awarded for "courses" that may be completed in as little as three hours. Three hours of test-taking to get credit for a full semester or even a year! I saw assessments that consisted exclusively of simplistic multiple-choice or true-false questions. I saw responses of dubious value that were "graded" by machines. The level of difficulty of these exams is shockingly low.

But this fraud works. It is profitable. It is a win-win: The student gets credit, the corporation makes money, the school raises its graduation rate, the city leaders celebrate, and the media reports the good news. And the graduation rate means nothing, and the students get an empty "education."

What is going on has nothing to do with learning. It has nothing to do with preparing for the responsibilities of citizenship. It has nothing to do with the goals and substance of a good education. The students who get these phony credits will require remedial courses if they decide to go to a two-year (or four-year) college.

Imagine this: A student fails algebra. He takes an online credit-recovery course. On the very first set of questions, he answers 70 percent of the questions correctly because the questions are so low level that even someone who failed algebra can guess the right answer. The student then goes on to take a series of "exams" and to get more and more right answers. If he guesses the wrong answer, he can take the "exam" again and get the right answer! Eventually, maybe in a few days, he scores 100 percent. What a triumph.

In some of the online courses, the student can skip the canned instruction and go right to the assessment and start the guessing process immediately. The student can guess the wrong answer, keep guessing until he gets it right, and eventually get credit for a correct answer. In this case, "try, try again" means "guess, guess again," and you will pass the course with flying colors.

The questions I saw for juniors and seniors were of a pathetically low academic level. A student who failed junior year in English might be able to pass in a matter of hours or days by answering a simple multiple-choice question. Or guessing wrong answers until he got the right answer. One online assessment asked students to "describe a brief encounter that you have experienced in the last month and explain whether it made you feel good or bad." Anything the student answered, even sentence fragments, received full credit. The answers are machine graded, and the scoring machine makes no distinction between good and poor responses.

I have 12 pages of questions and answers, of scoring tables, of screen shots showing that the student answered incorrectly and was allowed to keep answering until he got it right.

This is academic fraud. These students are not getting an education. They are going through an exercise to pretend that they got an education so that they can graduate. The district will boast that its graduation rate is going up and up. Media figures will say that "education reform" is working. Big-name officials will exchange high-fives. And many thousands of young people will get a diploma that signifies nothing. If they are lucky, they will get remediation when they enter college. If they are unlucky, they will join the ranks of the unemployed and the underemployed and wonder why their education did so little to prepare them for the challenges of life.

Does anyone care?

HIGHLIGHTS, LOWLIGHTS & THE NEWS THAT DOESN'T FIT: The Rest (but not necessarily the best) of the Stories from Other Sources
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: A shorter school year for students + Teachers can't do everything + Kids need health clas...


CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE APPROVES MAIN BUDGET BILL: S&P, Moody’s threaten to lower ratings: Reuters: Reporting by ...

LEGISLATURE ERASES GOVERNOR’S EDUCATION REFORMS: Weighted funding out, science mandate in: Package would allow K...

CALIFORNIA'S BUDGET IS FULL OF GIMMICKS …including delaying payments to schools: By DAN WALTERS, Sacramento Bee ...

AUSD FACILITIES CHIEF RESIGNING TO TAKE JOB AT UCLA: By Barbara Jones, Staff Writer, LA Daily News | http://bit...

The conditional: L.A. SCHOOL CUTS COULD BE REVERSED IF JERRY BROWN'S TAX PLAN PASSES + smf’s 2¢: by Anthony York...


SacBee @kyamamura Lawmakers must digest 777-page budget and vote today (like a snake, they swallow it whole) #CAbudget

Former LAUSD Teacher gets principal gig in Dedham, Mass..



Parent melee at LAUSD Preschool graduation becomes YouTube moment, NY Daily News story!

Breaking: WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCES RELIEF FOR UNDOCUMENTED YOUNGSTERS: white house e-mail Friday, June 15, 201...

LAUSD’S BIG TEST: A judge says the district and union must find a way to use student progress in teachers' evalu...

FWD fm UTLA: Go to LAUSD's link for list of UTLA members who are scheduled to receive a layoff rescission letter

K-12 ARTS EDUCATION NEWS: RIFs/Possible Rescissions: by e-mail from UTLA Arts Education Committee Chair Ginger F...

The famous 1984 Macintosh Super Bowl ad warned us: MAYBE BILL GATES IS “BIG BROTHER”: $1.1 million-plus Gates gr...

Less days reduce test scores LAUSD cuts days + uses scores 2 judge teachers

CRITICS DECRY LATEST SHRINKAGE OF L.A. UNIFIED'S SCHOOL YEAR: All sides agree that the tentative agreement to tr...

9AM TODAY - L.A. NOW LIVE CHAT W/HOWARD BLUME: LAUSD's shortened school year: L.A. Times: June 13, 2012 | 6:30...

Realtime Coverage: EDVOICE/STULL LAWSUIT RULING: LA teacher reviews should include student achievement, judge sa...

EVENTS: Coming up next week...

*Dates and times subject to change. ________________________________________
Phone: 213-241-5183
Phone: 213-241.8700


What can YOU do?
• E-mail, call or write your school board member: • 213-241-6386 • 213-241-6180 • 213-241-5555 • 213-241-6382 • 213-241-6388 • 213-241-6385 • 213-241-6387
...or your city councilperson, mayor, the governor, member of congress, senator - or the president. Tell them what you really think! • Find your state legislator based on your home address. Just go to: • There are 26 mayors and five county supervisors representing jurisdictions within LAUSD, the mayor of LA can be reached at • 213.978.0600
• Call or e-mail Governor Brown: 213-897-0322 e-mail:
• Open the dialogue. Write a letter to the editor. Circulate these thoughts. Talk to the principal and teachers at your local school.
• Speak with your friends, neighbors and coworkers. Stay on top of education issues. Don't take my word for it!
• Get involved at your neighborhood school. Join your PTA. Serve on a School Site Council. Be there for a child.
• If you are eligible to become a citizen, BECOME ONE.
• If you a a citizen, REGISTER TO VOTE.
• If you are registered, VOTE LIKE THE FUTURE DEPENDS ON IT. THEY DO!.

Who are your elected federal & state representatives? How do you contact them?

Scott Folsom is a parent leader in LAUSD and is Parent/Volunteer of the Year for 2010-11 for Los Angeles County. • He is Past President of Los Angeles Tenth District PTSA and represented PTA on the LAUSD Construction Bond Citizen's Oversight Committee for ten years. He is a Health Commissioner, Legislation Team member and a member of the Board of Managers of the California State PTA. He serves on numerous school district advisory and policy committees and has served as a PTA officer and governance council member at three LAUSD schools. He is the recipient of the UTLA/AFT 2009 "WHO" Gold Award for his support of education and public schools - an honor he hopes to someday deserve. • In this forum his opinions are his own and your opinions and feedback are invited. Quoted and/or cited content copyright © the original author and/or publisher. All other material copyright © 4LAKids.
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